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Lenguages of Mexico - CEMCUI

Lenguages of Mexico

Mexico's main language is Spanish however it is a country with a great variety of indigenous languages. There are a total of 364 indigenous languages spoken throughout the country placing it as 5th in the world.

According to the National Institute of Indigenous Languages ​​(INALI) in Mexico, there are 11 linguistic families. Each of the families spread out into 68 different groups that make up for 364 indigenous languages ​​in the country through each of their variants.

Linguistic families are considered to be those with languages ​​whose structural and lexical similarities are due to a common historical origin.

11 families:

  1. Álgica.
  2. Yuto-nahua.
  3. Cochimí-yumana.
  4. Seri.
  5. Oto-mangue.
  6. Maya.
  7. Totonaco-tepehua.
  8. Tarasca.
  9. Mixe-zoque.
  10. Chontal de Oaxaca.
  11. Huave.

The linguistic grouping is defined as the set of linguistic variants included under the name given historically to indigenous people.

68 groups:

 Akateko

 Amuzgo

Awakateko

 Ayapaneco

Cora

Cucapá

Cuicateco

Chatino

Chichimeco jonaz

Chinanteco

Chocholteco

Chontal de Oaxaca

Chontal de Tabasco

Chuj

Ch'ol

Guarijío

Huasteco

Huave

Huichol

Ixcateco

Ixil

Jakalteko

Kaqchikel

Kickapoo

Kiliwa

Kumiai

Ku'ahl

K'iche'

Lacandón

Mam

Matlatzinca

Maya

Mayo

Mazahua

Mazateco

Mixe

Mixteco

Náhuatl

Oluteco

Otomí

Paipai

Pame

Pápago

Pima

Popoloca

Popoluca de la Sierra

Qato'k

Q'anjob'al

Q'eqchí '

Sayulteco

Seri

Tarahumara

Tarasco

Teko

Tepehua

Tepehuano del norte

Tepehuano del sur

Texistepequeño

Tlahuica

Tlapaneco

Tojolabal

Totonaco

Triqui

Tseltal

Tsotsil

Yaqui

Zapoteco

Zoque

 

Several variants emerged from the 68 indigenous dialects which are defined as a form of speech that presents structural and lexical differences compared to other variants of the same linguistic group and implies a certain sociolinguistic identity, which differs of other sociolinguistic identities of other variants.

According to INALI, linguistic variants must be treated as a language in all public and social matters such as education, justice, and healthcare.

References:

https://www.inali.gob.mx/clin-inali/

https://edomex.gob.mx/internacional_lengua_materna#:~:text=M%C3%A9xico%20es%20uno%20de%20los,la%20Evaluaci%C3%B3n%20de%20la%20Educaci%C3%B3n.

https://site.inali.gob.mx/Micrositios/DILM2019/diversidad_linguistica.html#:~:text=Por%20otro%20lado%2C%20los%20registros,Nueva%20Guinea%20con%20832%20lenguas.

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